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Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Canada continues to lag behind other OECD countries on measures of patient safety. Ottawa, ON: CIHI. 2019a. https://www.cihi.ca/en/canada-continues-to-lag-behind-other-oecd-countries-on-measures-of-patient-safety?utm_medium=email&utm_source=crm&utm_campaign=stakeholder-embargo-oecd-embargo-october-2019&utm_content=canada-continues-to-lag-oecd-patient-safety-web-page-en&emktg_lang=en&emktg_order=3

Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). OECD Interactive Tool: International Comparisons. Published 2019b. http://www.cihi.ca/en/oecd-interactive-tool-international-comparisons-patient-safety

Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA), Healthcare Insurance Reciprocal of Canada (HIROC). Detailed Analysis. Surgical Safety in Canada: A 10-Year Review of CMPA and HIROC Medico-Legal Data. 2016. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/toolsResources/Surgical-Safety-in-Canada/Documents/Surgical%20Safety%20in%20Canada%20-%20Detailed%20Analysis%20Report.pdf

Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). Retained Foreign Object. Published 2016. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/Topic/Pages/Retained-Foreign-Object.aspx

Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). Surgical error inspires doctor to champion the safety of all patients. Published 2016. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/toolsResources/HealthcareProviderStories/Pages/Surgical-error-inspires-doctor-to-champion-the-safety-of-all-patients-2016-10.aspx

Gawande AA, Studdert DM, Orav EJ, Brennan TA, Zinner MJ. Risk Factors for Retained Instruments and Sponges after Surgery. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(3):229-235. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa021721.

Gentile D. "It felt like I had been stabbed," says patient left with 33-cm metal plate inside after surgery. CBC News. Published June 28, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/montreal-hospital-instrument-left-inside-patient-sylvie-dube-1.4181278

Healthcare Insurance Reciprocal of Canada (HIROC). Risk Reference Sheets: Retained Surgical Items. Toronto, ON: HIROC; 2016. https://www.hiroc.com/resources/risk-reference-sheets/retained-surgical-items

Hôpital Charles LeMoyne. Leading Practices: Surgical Instruments Management Program. Ottawa, ON: Health Standards Organization; 2009. https://healthstandards.org/leading-practice/surgical-instruments-management-program/

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to Guide: Prevent Harm from High-Alert Medications. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI); 2012. http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Tools/HowtoGuidePreventHarmfromHighAlertMedications.aspx

Leung W. Canada worse than other wealthy countries in patient safety – including objects left in body after surgery, data show. The Globe and Mail. Published November 7, 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/article-canada-worse-than-other-wealthy-countries-in-patient-safety/

Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Epidural or Subarachnoid Catheter Shear. Pa Patient Saf Auth. 2009;6(3):84-86. Retrieved from: http://patientsafety.pa.gov/ADVISORIES/Pages/200909_84.aspx

Pugel AE, Simianu VV, Flum DR, Patchen Dellinger E. Use of the surgical safety checklist to improve communication and reduce complications. J Infect Public Health. 2015;8(3):219-225. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2015.01.001

The Joint Commission. Preventing unintended retained foreign objects. Sentin Event Alert. 2013;(51). http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/SEA_51_URFOs_10_17_13_FINAL.pdf.

Weinstein SM, Hagle ME. Plumer's Principles and Practice of Infusion Therapy. Ninth. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.