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​Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). PSI (Patient Safety Indicator) 09: Postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma. Selected best practices and suggestions for improvement. AHRQ; 2013. Avalaible at: https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/professionals/systems/hospital/qitoolkit/combined/d4f_combo_psi09-postophemorrhage-bestpractices.pdf

American College of Surgeons. ATLS® Advanced Trauma Life Support® 10th Edition https://viaaerearcp.files.wordpress.com/2018/02/atls-2018.pdf

American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Management. Practice guidelines for perioperative blood management: An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Management. Anesthesiology. 2015; 122 (2): 241-275. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000463. Available at: http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2088825

Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, Thomas D, Wee M, et al. Blood transfusion and the anaesthetist: management of massive haemorrhage. Anaesthesia. 2010; 65 (11): 1153-1161. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032944/

Balvers K, Coppens M, van Dieren S et al. Effects of a hospital-wide introduction of a massive transfusion protocol on blood product ratio and blood product waste. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2015; 8 (4): 199–204. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.166597. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4626936/

Broussard D, Ural K.  Cardiovascular problems in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). UpToDate. 2018 June 5, last update.

Callcut RA, Cripps MW, Nelson MF, et al. The Massive Transfusion Score as a decision aid for resuscitation: Learning when to turn the massive transfusion protocol on and off.  J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016; 80 (3): 450-456. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000914. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767564/

Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, et al. Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.  Intensive Care Med. 2014; 40 (12): 1795-1815. doi: 10.1007/s00134-014-3525-z. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239778/

Chee YL, Crawford JC, Watson HG, Greaves M. Guidelines on the assessment of bleeding risk prior to surgery or invasive procedures: British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Br J Haematol. 2008; 140 (5): 496-504. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06968.x. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06968.x

Clevenger B, Mallett SV, Klein AA, Richards T. Patient blood management to reduce surgical risk. Br J Surg. 2015; 102 (11): 1325-1337. doi: 10.1002/bjs.9898. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bjs.9898

Dagi TF. The management of postoperative bleeding. Surg Clin N Am. 2005; 85 (6): 1191-1213. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2005.10.013

De Hert S, Imberger G, Carlisle J. et al. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011; 28 (10): 684–722. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283499e3b. Available at: https://journals.lww.com/ejanaesthesiology/fulltext/2011/10000/Preoperative_evaluation_of_the_adult_patient.5.aspx

Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Spencer FA, Mayr M et al. Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141 (2 Suppl): e326S–e350S. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-2298. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278059/

Gaieski DF, Mikkelsen ME. Evaluation of and initial approach to the adult patient with undifferentiated hypotension and shock. UpToDate. 2018 October, last updated.

Graetz TJ, Nuttall G. Preoperative evaluation and perioperative strategies to minimize blood transfusion. UpToDate. 2018 July, last updated.

HIROC. Risk reference sheet: Failure to appreciate status changes/deteriorating patients. Acute care. Toronto, ON: HIROC; 2016. https://www.hiroc.com/getmedia/ab1d0552-af52-4b71-b4c1-4ba8b643b27e/2_Failure-to-Appreciate-Status-Change.pdf.aspx?ext=.pdf

Hohmuth B, Ozawa S, Ashton M, Melseth RL. Patient-centered blood management. J Hosp Med. 2014; 9 (1): 60-65. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2116.

Hrymak C, Funk DJ, O'Connor MF, Jacobsohn E. Intraoperative management of shock in adults. UpToDate. 2018 July, last updated.

Hunt BJ, Allard S, Keeling David, et al. A practical guideline for the haematological management of major haemorrhage.Br J Haematol. 2015; 170 (6): 788-803. doi: 10.1111/bjh.13580. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bjh.13580

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to guide: Prevent harm from high-alert medications. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2012. http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Tools/HowtoGuidePreventHarmfromHighAlertMedications.aspx

Koscielny J, von Tempelhoff GF, Ziemer S, et al. A practical concept for preoperative management of patients with impaired primary hemostasis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2004;10 (2): 155–166.

Kozek-Langenecker SA, Afshari A, Albaladejo P, et al. Management of severe perioperative bleeding: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology: First update 2016. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2017; 34 (6): 332-395. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000630. Available at: https://journals.lww.com/ejanaesthesiology/fulltext/2017/06000/Management_of_severe_perioperative_bleeding__.3.aspx

Laporta D. Types of shock encountered in the peri-procedure period. Personal communication; 2018 Marc.

McDaniel LM, Etchill EW, Raval JS, Neal MD. State of the art: massive transfusion. Transfus Med. 2014; 4 (3): 138-144. doi: 10.1111/tme.12125.

National Blood Authority. Patient blood management guidelines: Module 2, perioperative. Canberra: National Blood Authority; 2012. Available at: https://www.blood.gov.au/pbm-module-2

Nichol A, Ahmed B. Shock: causes, initial assessment and investigations. Anesth Intens Care Med. 2014: 15 (2): 64-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpaic.2013.12.008

Porteous J. Massive transfusion protocol: Standardizing care to improve patient outcomes. ORNAC J. 2015; 33 (2): 13-30

Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017; 45 (3): 486-552. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002255. Available at: https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/fulltext/2017/03000/Surviving_Sepsis_Campaign___International.15.aspx

Siparsky N. Overview of postoperative fluid therapy in adults. UpToDate. 2018 May, last updated.

Vincent JL, De Backer D. Circulatory shock. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369 (18): 1726-1734. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1208943. Available at: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMra1208943?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov&