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​Vital to quality improvement is measurement, and this applies specifically to implementation of interventions. The chosen measures will help to determine whether an impact is being made (primary outcome), whether the intervention is actually being carried out (process measures), and whether any unintended consequences ensue (balancing measures).

Below are some recommended measures to use, as appropriate, to track your progress. In selecting your measures, consider the following:

  • Whenever possible, use measures you are already collecting for other programs.
  • Evaluate your choice of measures in terms of the usefulness of the final results and the resources required to obtain them; try to maximize the former while minimizing the latter.
  • Try to include both process and outcome measures in your measurement scheme.
  • You may use different measures or modify the measures described below to make them more appropriate and/or useful to your particular setting. However, be aware that modifying measures may limit the comparability of your results to others.
  • Posting your measure results within your hospital is a great way to keep your teams motivated and aware of progress. Try to include measures that your team will find meaningful and exciting (IHI, 2011).

For more information on measuring for improvement, contact the Canadian Patient Safety Institute Central Measurement Team at

Outcome Measures

  • Incidence of Iatrogenic Pneumothorax
  • Percentage of Patients with Pneumothorax Developing Tension Pneumothorax

Process Improvement Measures

  • Percentage of ICU Patients Undergoing Risk Assessment for Pneumothorax
  • Percentage of Non-Emergent Patients Undergoing a Central Line Insertion and/or Thoracentesis with Completed Risk Assessment for Pneumothorax
  • Percentage of High Risk Patients With an Individualized Risk Reduction Plan Implemented (Example: An agitated patient will require some form of procedural sedation for central line insertion)
  • Percentage of Providers Performing Procedures Associated With Pneumothorax Having Completed Appropriate Training
  • Percentage of High Risk Patients Undergoing Routine Post Procedural Monitoring for Pneumothorax (Example: post-procedure ultrasound surveillance of chest wall after difficult CVAD insertion in a patient mechanically ventilated for ARDS on PEEP of 15cmH20)