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Professional Associations and Helpful Websites

Clinical Practice Guidelines

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Practice Bulletins- Obstetrics. Practice bulletin 154: Operative vaginal delivery. (Replaces practice bulletin number 17, June 2000). Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 126 (5): e56-e65. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001147.

Kotaska A, Menticoglou S, Gagnon R, Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009; 31 (6): 557-566. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(16)34221-9.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Intrapartum care: quality standard QS105. London: NICE; 2015, reviewed 2017. Available at:

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intrapartum care for healthy women and babies: clinical guideline 190. London: NICE; 2014, updated 2017. Available at:

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Operative vaginal delivery: Green-top guideline No. 26. London: ROCG; 2011. Available at: 

Additional Resources for Obstetric Trauma

Bohren MA, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C, Rukuzawa RK, Cuthbert A. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017; 7: CD003766. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.pub6. Available at:

Gupta JK, Sood A, Hofmeyr GJ, Vogel JP. Position in the second stage of labour for women without epidural anaesthesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017; 5:CD002006. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002006.pub4. Available at:

Handa VL, Blomquist JL, McDermott KC, Friedman S, Munoz A.  Pelvic floor disorders after vaginal birth: effect of episiotomy, perineal laceration, and operative birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 119 (2 Pt 1): 233-239. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318240df4f. Available at:

Lavy Y, Sand PK, Kaniel CI, Hochner-Celnikier D. Can pelvic floor injury secondary to delivery be prevented?  Int Urogynecol J. 2012; 23 (2): 165-173. doi: 10.1007/s00192-011-1530-0. Available at:

Moorhead J. Torn apart by childbirth. The Guardian. 2010 December 10, Available at:

O'Mahony F, Hofmeyr GJ, Menon V. Choice of instruments for assisted vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; 11: CD005455. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005455.pub2

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health at a Glance: Europe 2012. OECD Publishing; 2012. Available at:

Paris AE, Greenberg JA, Ecker JL, McElrath TF. Is an episiotomy necessary with a shoulder dystocia? Am J Obstet Gynecol.  2011; 205 (3):  217.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.04.006

Vayssière C, Beucher G, Dupuis O, et al. Instrumental delivery: clinical practice guidelines from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011; 159 (1): 43-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.06.043.