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Aasheim V, Nilsen AB, Lukasse M, Reinar LM.  Perineal techniques during the second stage of labour for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017; 6:CD006672. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006672.pub3. Available at:

Allen J. Uterine rupture survival story.  Mother's Haven. 2014. Available at:

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice bulletin no. 184: Vaginal birth after caesarean delivery. (Replaces practice bulletin number 115, August 2010). Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 130 (5): e217-233. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002398.

Andersen MM, Thisted DL, Amer-Wahlin I, Krebs L, Danish CTG Monitoring during VBAC study group. Can intrapartum cardiotocography predict uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean delivery? A population based case-control study. PLoS One. 2016; 11 (2): e0146347. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146347. Available at:

Beckmann MM, Stock OM.  Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 4: CD005123. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005123.pub3. Available at:

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Dickinson KJ, Pickersgill P, Anwar S. Functional and physiological outcomes following repair of obstetrics anal sphincter injury. A case. In J Surg. 2013; 11 (10): 1137-1140. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.08.017. Available at:

Hirayam F, Koyanagi A, Mori R, Zhang J, Souza JP, Gulmezoglu AM. Prevalence and risk factors for third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations during vaginal delivery: a multi-country study. BJOG. 2012; 119 (3): 340-347. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03210.x. Available at:

Institute for Healthcare Improvement.  How-to Guide: Prevent obstetrical adverse events. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2012. Available at:

Kuehn BM. Studies examine fetal surgery trade-offs, drug interactions and uterine rupture. JAMA. 2012; 307 (12): 1239-1241. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.315.

Lacker C. Preventing maternal and neonatal harm during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. Am J Nurs. 2012; 112 (2): 65-69. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000411187.24212.40.

Landy HJ, Laughon SK, Bailit JL, Kominiarek MA, Gonzalez-Quintero VH, Ramirez M, et al. Characteristics associated with severe perineal and cervical lacerations during vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117 (3): 627-635. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820afaf2. Available at:

Lang CT, Landon MB. Uterine rupture as a source of obstetrical hemorrhage. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 53 (1): 237-251. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cc4538.

Melamed N, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, Kaplan B, Yogev Y. Intrapartum cervical lacerations: characteristics, risk factors, and effects on subsequent pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 200 (4): 388. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.10.034.

Ophir E, Odeh M, Hirsch Y, Bornstein J. Uterine rupture during trial of labor: controversy of induction's methods. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2012; 67 (11): 734-745. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e318273feeb.

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Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD Health Statistics 2013. OECD Publishing; 2013. Available at:

Parikh R, Brotzman S, Anasti JN.  Cervical lacerations: some surprising facts.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 196 (5): e17-e18. Available at:

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Green-top guideline n. 29: The management of third- and fourth-degree perineal tears. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: 2015. Available at:    

Scott JR. Intrapartum management of trial of labour after caesarean delivery: evidence and experience. BJOG. 2014; 121 (2):157-162. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12449. Available at:

Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Martel MJ, MacKinnon CJ. SOGC clinical practice guidelines.Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous caesarean birth. Number 155 (Replaces guideline Number 147, February 2005, reaffirmed March 2018). J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018; 40 (3): e195-e207. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2018.01.014.

Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Harvey MA, Pierce M. Obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): Prevention, recognition, and repair.   J Obstet Gynaecol Can.  2015; 37 (12): 1131–1148.
             Erratum. DOI: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.02.004

Statistics Canada.  Table 17-10-0016-01.  Estimates of births, by sex, annual.  Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.  Available at:  

Sultan AH, Kettle C. Diagnosis of perineal trauma. In: Sultan AH, Thakar R, Fenner DE, Eds. Perineal and anal sphincter trauma. London: Springer-Lerlag: 2009; 13–19.

VBAC CPG Working Group, Association of Ontario Midwives. Clinical practice guideline 14: Vaginal birth after previous low-segment caesarean section. Association of Ontario Midwives; Toronto, ON: 2011. Available at:

Wong LF, Wilkes J, Korgenski K, Varner MW, Manuck TA. Intrapartum cervical laceration and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. AJP Rep. 2016; 6 (3): e318–e323. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1592198. Available at: