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​Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).  APIC Implementation Guide: Guide to preventing Clostridium difficile infections. Washington DC: APIC; 2013. Available at: http://apic.org/Resource_/EliminationGuideForm/59397fc6-3f90-43d1-9325-e8be75d86888/File/2013CDiffFinal.pdf

Calfee DP. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and other Gram-positives in healthcare.  Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012; 25(4): 385-394. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283553441

Campbell EA. Outbreak investigations. In: APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology Online (ATO). Arlington, VA: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, INC. (APIC); 2014. https://text.apic.org/toc/epidemiology-surveillance-performance-and-patient-safety-measures/outbreak-investigations

Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). How to help prevent healthcare-associated infections: A patient and family guide. Edmonton, AB: CPSI; 2012. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/About/Programs/HH/Documents/Patients%20and%20Families/Patient%20Family%20Guide.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Clostridium difficile infection. CDC; 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cdiff/cdiff_infect.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/mrsa-infection.html 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. VRE in healthcare settings. CDC; 2011. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/vre/vre.html

Health Standards Organization (HS0). Leading Practices Toronto East General Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP). Health Standards Organization; 2012 https://healthstandards.org/leading-practice/toronto-east-general-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-asp/

Health Standards Organization (HS0). Leading Practices Volunteers and Patients as Hand Hygiene "Partners in Care". Health Standards Organization; 2014 https://healthstandards.org/leading-practice/volunteers-and-patients-as-hand-hygiene-partners-in-care/

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2011. Available at : http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Tools/HowtoGuidePreventCatheterAssociatedUrinaryTractInfection.aspx 

Martin, P., C. Abou, V. William, K. Bush, M. Dyck, Z. Hirji et al. 2019. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Canadian Hospitals. Comparison of Point-Prevalence Survey Results from 2010, 2012, and 2016. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 40(1): 53–59. doi:10.1017/ice.2018.279.

McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018; 66(7): 987-994. doi:10.1093/cid/cix1085. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/66/7/e1/4855916

Mitchell R, G. Taylor, W. Rudnick, S. Alexandre, K. Bush, L. Forrester et al. 2019. Trends in Health Care-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals in Canada: An Analysis of Repeated Point-Prevalence Surveys. CMAJ;191 (36): E981–88. doi:10.1503/cmaj.190361.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Clostridium difficile infection: Risk with broad-spectrum antibiotics. NICE Evidence Summary; 2015. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/esmpb1/chapter/Key-points-from-the-evidence  

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Routine practices and additional precautions for preventing the transmission of infection in healthcare settings. Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2017. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/diseases-conditions/routine-practices-precautions-healthcare-associated-infections.html

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Tackling antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use: A pan-Canadian framework for action. Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2017. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/publications/drugs-health-products/tackling-antimicrobial-resistance-use-pan-canadian-framework-action.html

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).   Federal action plan on antimicrobial resistance and use in Canada: Building on the Federal framework for action. Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2015. Available at: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/alt/pdf/publications/drugs-products-medicaments-produits/antibiotic-resistance-antibiotique/action-plan-daction-eng.pdf

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).   Fact sheet - Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2014. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/infectious-diseases/fact-sheet-clostridium-difficile-difficile.html

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).  Fact Sheet - Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2010. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/infectious-diseases/nosocomial-occupational-infections/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci.html

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Fact Sheet - Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ottawa, ON: PHAC; 2008. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/mrsa-eng.php 

Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: Final report and recommendations. UK; 2016. Available at: https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/160525_Final%20paper_with%20cover.pdf

World Health Organization (WHO). News release. In the face of slow progress, WHO offers a new tool and sets a target to accelerate action against antimicrobial resistance. WHO. Geneva. 2019.  Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/18-06-2019-in-the-face-of-slow-progress-who-offers-a-new-tool-and-sets-a-target-to-accelerate-action-against-antimicrobial-resistance

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines on core components of infection prevention and control programmes at the national and acute health care facility level. WHO; 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/infection-prevention/publications/ipc-components-guidelines/en/