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​Clevenger B, Mallett SV, Klein AA, Richards T. Patient blood management to reduce surgical risk. Br J Surg. 2015;102(11):1325-1337. doi:10.1002/bjs.9898

Ferraris VA, Davenport DL, Saha SP, Austin PC, Zwischenberger JB. Surgical Outcomes and Transfusion of Minimal Amounts of Blood in the Operating Room. Arch Surg. 2012;147(1):49-55. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.790

Gombotz H. Patient Blood Management: A Patient-Orientated Approach to Blood Replacement with the Goal of Reducing Anemia, Blood Loss and the Need for Blood Transfusion in Elective Surgery. Transfus Med Hemother. 2012;39(2):67-72. doi:10.1159/000337183

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to Guide: Prevent Harm from High-Alert Medications. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2012. http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Tools/HowtoGuidePreventHarmfromHighAlertMedications.aspx.

Mazer CD. Blood conservation in cardiac surgery: Guidelines and controversies. Transfus Apher Sci. 2014;50(1):20-25. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2013.12.008

Muñoz M, Gómez-Ramírez S, Kozek-Langeneker S. Pre-operative haematological assessment in patients scheduled for major surgery. Anaesthesia. 2016;71(S1):19-28. doi:10.1111/anae.13304

Musallam KM, Tamim HM, Richards T, et al. Preoperative anaemia and postoperative outcomes in non-cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378(9800):1396-1407. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61381-0

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). NICE Publishes Draft Guidance on Tests for Bleeding Problems during and after Cardiac Surgery. London, UK: NICE; 2014. https://www.nice.org.uk/news/press-and-media/nice-publishes-draft-guidance-on-tests-for-bleeding-problems-during-and-after-cardiac-surgery.

National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS). Haemorrhage after Liver Biopsy. London, UK: National Health Service; 2009. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/NewsAlerts/Alerts/Pages/AlertDetail.aspx?AlertID=NPSA013.

National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS). Early Detection of Complications after Gastrostomy. London, UK: National Health Service; 2010a. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/NewsAlerts/Alerts/Pages/AlertDetail.aspx?AlertID=NPSA089.

National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS). Haemorrhage Following Removal of Femoral Catheters. London, UK: National Health Service; 2010b. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/NewsAlerts/Alerts/Pages/AlertDetail.aspx?AlertID=NPSA014.

National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS). Haemorrhages from Arteriovenous Fistula. London, UK: National Health Service; 2011. https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120506001436/http://www.nrls.npsa.nhs.uk/resources/type/signals/?entryid45=94847&cord=ASC&p=1.

Oregon Patient Safety Commission. Patient Safety Alert: Colonoscopies and Red Dot Alerts for Anticoagulants. Portland, OR: Oregon Patient Safety Commission; 2015. https://oregonpatientsafety.org/news-information/news-information/action-alert-colonoscopies-and-red-dot-alerts-for-anticoagulants/553/.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI). From blood transfusions, to heart surgery, to lung infections, Dr. Paul Hébert is doing research to improve the way we care for the sickest patients in the hospital. OHRI Newsroom. http://www.ohri.ca/newsroom/story/view/751?l=en. Published June 1, 2006.

Spahn D. Anemia and Patient Blood Management in Hip and Knee Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(2):482-495. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181e08e97

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Leading Practices: Best Practice in Patient Blood Management in a Surgical Patient Population. Ottawa, ON: Health Standards Organization; 2013. https://healthstandards.org/leading-practice/best-practice-in-patient-blood-management-in-a-surgical-patient-population/.

Theusinger OM, Kind SL, Seifert B, Borgeat L, Gerber C, Spahn DR. Patient blood management in orthopaedic surgery: A four-year follow-up of transfusion requirements and blood loss from 2008 to 2011 at the Balgrist University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Blood Transfus. 2014;12(2):195-203. doi:10.2450/2014.0306-13

Theusinger OM MD, Leyvraz P-F MD, Schanz U MD, Seifert B PhD, Spahn DR MD,FRCA. Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Orthopedic Surgery with Intravenous Iron: Efficacy and Limits: A Prospective Study. Anesthesiology. 2007;107(6):923-927. doi:10.1097/01.anes.0000291441.10704.82

Veterans Affairs Central Office, National Center for Patient Safety. Bleeding Episodes During Dialysis. Washington, DC: Veterans Affairs Central Office; 2008. https://www.patientsafety.va.gov/docs/alerts/BleedingEpisodesDuringDialysisAD09-02.pdf