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Measurement of Quality and Patient Safety

Berger, Z. D., Joy, S. M., Hutfless, S., & Bridges, J. F. (2013). Can public reporting impact patient outcomes and disparities? A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns, 93(3), 480-487. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2013.03.003
OBJECTIVE: Recent US healthcare reforms aim to improve quality and access. We synthesized evidence assessing the impact that public reporting (PR), which will be extended to the outpatient setting, has on patient outcomes and disparities.

Doran, D., Mildon, B., & Clarke, S. (2011). Towards a national report card in nursing: a knowledge synthesis. Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont), 24(2), 38-57. 
This paper is an abridged version of a knowledge synthesis undertaken to inform the proceedings of a collaborative forum of nurse leaders convened under the auspices of Health Canada, the Academy of Canadian Executive Nurses, the Canadian Nurses Association and Canada Health Infoway for the purpose of discussing the development of a nursing report card for Canada.

Goeschel, C. A., Berenholtz, S. M., Culbertson, R. A., Jin, L., & Pronovost, P. J. (2011). Board quality scorecards: measuring improvement. Am J Med Qual, 26(4), 254-260. doi:10.1177/1062860610389324
Board accountability for quality and patient safety is widely accepted but the science for how to measure it is immature, and differences between measuring performance, identifying hazards, and monitoring progress are often misunderstood. Hospital leaders often provide scorecards to assist boards with their oversight role yet, in the absence of national standards, little evidence exists regarding which measures are valid and useful to boards to assess quality improvement.

Hafner, J. M., Williams, S. C., Koss, R. G., Tschurtz, B. A., Schmaltz, S. P., & Loeb, J. M. (2011). The perceived impact of public reporting hospital performance data: interviews with hospital staff. Int J Qual Health Care, 23(6), 697-704. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzr056 
OBJECTIVE: To assess perceptions about the value and impact of publicly reporting hospital performance measure data.

Marsteller, J. A., Hsu, Y. J., & Weeks, K. (2014). Evaluating the impact of mandatory public reporting on participation and performance in a program to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections: evidence from a national patient safety collaborative. Am J Infect Control, 42(10 Suppl), S209-215. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.06.001
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether mandatory reporting influences the efforts and performance of hospitals to prevent hospital-acquired infections. This study examines whether mandatory reporting impacted participation and performance in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a national patient safety collaborative.

Podolsky, D. K., Nagarkar, P. A., Reed, W. G., & Rohrich, R. J. (2014). Public reporting of patient safety metrics: ready or not? Plast Reconstr Surg, 134(6), 981e-985e. doi:10.1097/prs.0000000000000713
In its 1999 report, the Institute of Medicine estimated that medical error leads to between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths per year. Given that statistic, public reporting of quality and safety metrics is a welcome response that may serve to reduce the rate of adverse events and restore patients' trust in the health care system.

Prince, P., & Willett, P. (2014). The mental health and addictions quality initiative: collaboration in public reporting and quality improvement. Healthc Manage Forum, 27(1), 25-29.  
Provincial and national initiatives to measure healthcare performance have primarily focused on general hospital care, with little or no attention paid to developing indicators appropriate for specialized mental health services.

Totten, A. M., Wagner, J., Tiwari, A., O'Haire, C., Griffin, J., & Walker, M. (2012). Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science (vol. 5: public reporting as a quality improvement strategy). Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep)(208.5), 1-645.
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of public reporting of health care quality information as a quality improvement strategy. We sought to determine if public reporting results in improvements in health care delivery and patient outcomes. We also considered whether public reporting affects the behavior of patients or of health care providers. Finally we assessed whether the characteristics of the public reports and the context affect the impact of public reports.

 VanDeVelde-Coke, S., & Velji, K. (2011). Toward a national report card for nursing. Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont), 24(1), 16-18.