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​Accreditation Canada. Leading practices database. 2015. http://www.accreditation.ca/leading-practices

American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171 (4): 388–416. https://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/tb-opi/guide1-29.pdf

Centers for Disease Control. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/

Davis J. The breadth of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Nonventilated versus ventilated patients in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory. 2012; 9 (3): 99-105. http://patientsafetyauthority.org/ADVISORIES/AdvisoryLibrary/2012/Sep;9(3)/Documents/sep;9(3).pdf

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to Guide: Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2012. http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Tools/HowtoGuidePreventVAP.aspx

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Ventilator bundle. Improvement Map. 2012. http://app.ihi.org/imap/tool/#Process=0f029d21-a307-4663-9d64-07da43f3f857

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Muscedere J, Dodek P, Keenan S, et al. Comprehensive evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia: prevention. J Crit Care. 2008; 23 (1): 126-137. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2007.11.014.

Muscedere JG, Martin CM, Heyland DK. The impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia on the Canadian health care system. J Crit Care. 2008; 23 (1): 5–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2007.11.012.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Routine practices and additional precautions for preventing the transmission of infection in healthcare settings. Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada; 2012. http://publications.gc.ca/collections//collection_2013/aspc-phac/HP40-83-2013-eng.pdf

Quinn B, Baker DL, Cohen S, et al. Basic nursing care to prevent nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2014; 46 (1): 11-19. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12050. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jnu.12050/full

Roquilly A, Marret E, Abraham E, Asehnoune K. Pneumonia prevention to decrease mortality in intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015; 60 (1): 64-75. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu740. [Erratum: Roquilly et al. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60: 64-75]. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/1/64.full.pdf

Rotstein C, Evans G, Born A, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2008; 19 (1): 19-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2610276/

*Safer Healthcare Now! Prevent ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP): Getting Started Kit. Canadian Patient Safety Institute; 2012. http://www.saferhealthcarenow.ca/EN/Interventions/VAP/Pages/resources.aspx

Safer Healthcare Now! Prevent ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP): One-pager. Canadian Patient Safety Institute; 2012. http://www.saferhealthcarenow.ca/EN/Interventions/VAP/Pages/resources.aspx

Sethi S. Hospital-acquired pneumonia. Merck Manual. 2014. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/pneumonia/hospital-acquired-pneumonia

Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, et al. Guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated pneumonia, 2003. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003. http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/guidelines/HApneu2003guidelines.pdf