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Professional Associations and Helpful Websites

Clinical Practice Guidelines

Active management of the third stage of labour: prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: No. 235 October 2009 (Replaces No. 88, April 2000). Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010; 108 (3): 258-267.

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Practice Bulletin: Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists, number 76, October 2006: postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108 (4): 1039-1047.

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to Guide: Prevent obstetrical adverse events. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2012.

Leduc D, Senikas V, Lalonde AB, Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee.  Active management of the third stage of labour: prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009; 31 (10): 980-993.

Lyndon A, Lagrew D, Shields L, Main E, Cape V. Improving health care response to obstetric hemorrhage, version 2.0: A California toolkit to transform maternity care. California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative. 2015.

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage. Green-top Guideline No. 52. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: 2011.

World Health Organization (WHO).  WHO recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. Geneva: WHO; 2012.

Additional Obstetric Hemorrhage Literature Resources

Abdul-Kadir R, McLintock C, Ducloy AS, et al. Evaluation and management of postpartum hemorrhage: consensus from an international expert panel. Transfusion. 2014; 54 (7): 1756-1768. doi: 10.1111/trf.12550.

Amorim-Costa C, Mota R, Rebelo C, Silva PT.  Uterine compression sutures for postpartum hemorrhage: is routine postoperative cavity evaluation needed? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011; 90 (7): 701-706. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01137.x.

Attilakos G, Psaroudakis D, Ash J, et al. Carbetocin versus oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage following caesarean section: the results of a double-blind randomised trial. BJOG. 2010; 117 (8): 929-936. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02585.x.

Audureau E, Deneux-Tharaux C, Lefevre P, et al.  Practices for prevention, diagnosis and management of postpartum haemorrhage: impact of a regional multifaceted intervention.  BJOG. 2009; 116 (10): 1325-1333. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02238.x.

Bohlmann MK, Rath W. Medical prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: a comparison of different guidelines. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014; 289 (3): 555-567. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-3016-4.

Chelmow, D. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention. BMJ Clin Evid. 2011; Apr 4: pii 1410.

Chu CS, Brhlikova  P, Pollock AM. Rethinking WHO guidance: review of evidence for misoprostol use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. J R Soc Med. 2012; 105 (8): 336-347. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2012.120044.

Clark SL, Christmas JT, Frye DR, Meyers JA, Perlin JB. Maternal mortality in the United States: predictability and the impact of protocols on fatal postcesarean pulmonary embolism and hypertension-related intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 211 (1): 32.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.031.

Conde-Agudelo A, Nieto A, Rosas-Bermudez A, Romero R. Misoprostol to reduce intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during cesarean delivery: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209 (1): 40.e1-.e17. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.015.

Du Y, Ye M, Zheng F. Active management of the third stage of labor with and without controlled cord traction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014; 93 (7): 626-633. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12424.

Einerson BD, Miller ES, Grobman WA. Does a postpartum hemorrhage patient safety program result in sustained changes in management and outcomes? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 212 (2): 140-4.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.07.004.

Elati A, Weeks A. Risk of fever after misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 120 (5): 1140-1148. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182707341

Elgafor el Sharkwy IA. Carbetocin versus sublingual misoprostol plus oxytocin infusion for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage at cesarean section in patients with risk factors: a randomized, open trail study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013; 288 (6): 1231-1236. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-2896-7.

Fawcus S, Moodley J. Postpartum haemorrhage associated with caesarean section and caesarean hysterectomy.  Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2013; 27 (2): 233-249. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2012.08.018.

Gillon TE, Pels A, von Dadelszen P, MacDonell K, Magee LA. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review of international clinical practice guidelines. PloS One. 2014; 9 (12): e113715.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113715.

Girard T, Mortl M, Schlembach D. New approaches to obstetric hemorrhage: the postpartum hemorrhage consensus algorithm. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014; 27 (3): 267-274. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000081.

Gizzo S, Patrelli TS, Gangi SD, et al.  Which uterotonic is better to prevent the postpartum hemorrhage? Latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects, and contraindications: a systematic review.  Reprod Sci. 2013; 20 (9): 1011-1019. doi: 10.1177/1933719112468951.

Heesen M, Bohmer J, Klohr S, et al. Prophylactic tranexamic acid in parturients at low risk for post-partum haemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014; 58 (9): 1075-1085. doi: 10.1111/aas.12341.

Higgins L, Mechery J, Tomlinson AJ. Does carbetocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section provide clinical or financial benefit compared with oxytocin? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011; 31 (8): 732-739. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2011.595982.

Hofmeyr GJ, Abdel-Aleem H, Abdel-Aleem MA. Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 7: CD006431. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006431.pub3.

Hofmeyr GJ, Gulmezoglu AM, Novikova N, Lawrie TA.  Postpartum misoprostol for preventing maternal mortality and morbidity.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 7: CD008982. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008982.pub2.

Hofmeyr GJ, Gulmezoglu AM, Novikova N, Linder V, Ferreira S, Piaggio G. Misoprostol to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of maternal deaths and dose-related effectsBull World Health Organ. 2009; 87 (9): 666-677.

Hofmeyr GJ, Mshweshwe NT, Gulmezoglu AM. Controlled cord traction for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 1: CD008020. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008020.pub2.

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage with misoprostol.  Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012; 119 (3): 213-214. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.09.002.

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with misoprostol.  Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012; 119 (3): 215-216. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.09.003.

International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, International Confederation of Midwives. International joint policy statement. FIGO/ICM global initiative to prevent post-partum hemorrhage. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004; 26 (12): 1100-1102, 1108-1111.

James AH, McLintock C, Lockhart E. Postpartum hemorrhage: when uterotonics and sutures fail. Am J Hematol. 2012; 87 (Suppl 1): S16-S22. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23156.

Jin B, Du Y, Zhang F, Zhang K, Wang L, Cui L. Carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016; 29 (3): 400-407. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2014.1002394.

Kacmar RM, Mhyre JM, Scavone BM, Fuller AJ, Toledo P. The use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols in United States academic obstetric anesthesia units. Anesth Analg. 2014; 119 (4): 906-910. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000399.

Knight M, Callaghan WM, Berg C, et al.  Trends in postpartum hemorrhage in high resource countries: a review and recommendations from the International Postpartum Hemorrhage Collaborative Group. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009; 9: 55. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-55.

Lalonde A.  Prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage in low-resource settings. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012; 117 (2): 108-118. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.03.001.

Li Q, Yang ZQ, Mohammed W, Feng YL, Shi HB, Zhou X. Prophylactic uterine artery embolization assisted cesarean section for the prevention of intrapartum hemorrhage in high-risk patients. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2014; 37 (6): 1458-1463. doi: 10.1007/s00270-014-0855-8.

Mahmud G, Javaid K, Tasnim N, Tabassum A, Bangash KT. Where does ergometrine stand in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in caesarean section? J Pak Med Assoc. 2014; 64 (8): 911-914.

Mori R, Nardin JM, Yamamoto N, Carroli G, Weeks, A.  Umbilical vein injection for the routine management of third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 3: CD006176. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006176.pub2.

Nadisauskiene RJ, Kliucinskas M, Dobozinskas P, Kacerauskiene J. The impact of postpartum haemorrhage management guidelines implemented in clinical practice: a systematic review of the literature. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014; 178: 21-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.03.051.

Novikova N, Hofmeyr GJ. Tranexamic acid for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; (7): CD007872. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007872.pub2.

Oladapo OT, Fawole B, Blum J, Abalos E.  Advance misoprostol distribution for preventing and treating postpartum haemorrhage.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 2: CD009336. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009336.pub2.

Oladapo OT, Okusanya BO, Abalos E. Intramuscular versus intravenous prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 2: CD009332. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009332.pub2.

Olefile KM, Khondowe O, M'Rithaa D. Misoprostol for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review. Curationis. 2013; 36 (1): E1-E10. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v36i1.57.

Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Postpartum hemorrhage: epidemiology, risk factors, and causes. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 53 (1): 147-156. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cc406d.

Pinto A, Niola R, Brunese L, Pinto F, Losco M, Romano L. Postpartum hemorrhage: what every radiologist needs to know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2012; 41 (3): 102-110. doi: 10.1067/j.cpradiol.2011.07.007.

Porreco RP, Stettler RW. Surgical remedies for postpartum hemorrhage. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 53 (1): 182-195. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cc4139.

Prata N, Bell S, Weidert K. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in low-resource settings: current perspectives. Int J Womens Health. 2013; 5: 737-752. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S51661.

Rajan PV, Wing DA. Postpartum hemorrhage: evidence-based medical interventions for prevention and treatment. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 53 (1): 165-181. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181ce0965.

Rath W. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with the oxytocin analogue carbetocin. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009; 147 (1): 15-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.06.018.

Roach MK, Abramovici A, Tita AT. Dose and duration of oxytocin to prevent postpartum hemorrhage: a review. Am J Perinatol. 2013; 30 (7): 523-528. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1329184.

Rossi AC, Prefumo F. Pregnancy outcomes of induced labor in women with previous cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015; 291 (2): 273-280. doi: 10.1007/s00404-014-3444-9.

Sentilhes L, Lasocki S, Ducloy-Bouthors AS, et al. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. Br J Anaesth. 2015; 114 (4): 576-587. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeu448.

Sheldon WR, Blum J, Durocher J, Winikoff B. Misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012; 21 (2): 235-250. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2012.647405.

Sheldon WR, Blum J, Vogel JP, et al. Postpartum haemorrhage management, risks, and maternal outcomes: findings from the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. BJOG. 2014; 121 (Suppl 1): 5-13. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12636.

Sloan NL, Durocher J, Aldrich T, Blum J, Winikoff B.  What measured blood loss tells us about postpartum bleeding: a systematic review. BJOG. 2010; 117 (7): 788-800. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02567.x.

Su LL, Chong YS, Samuel M.  Carbetocin for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 2: CD005457. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005457.pub3.

Tang J, Kapp N, Dragoman M, de Souza JP. WHO recommendations for misoprostol use for obstetric and gynecologic indications. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013; 121 (2): 186-189. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.12.009.

Tuncalp O, Hofmeyr GJ, Gulmezoglu AM. Prostaglandins for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 8: CD000494. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000494.pub4.

Welsh A, McLintock C, Gatt S, Somerset D, Popham P, Ogle R.  Guidelines for the use of recombinant activated factor VII in massive obstetric haemorrhageAust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008; 48 (1): 12-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2007.00823.x.

Westhoff G, Cotter AM, Tolosa JE.  Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage.  Cochrane Database SystRev. 2013; 10: CD001808. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001808.pub2.

Xu J, Gao W, Ju Y. Tranexamic acid for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section: a double-blind randomization trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013; 287 (3): 463-468. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2593-y.